Development of TCCN theory

Dr. Rozzano Locsin's Middle Range Theory of "Technological Competency as Caring in Nursing," was founded on the grand theory Nursing As Caring (NAC), by Anne Boykin and Savina Schoenhofer which was introduced in 1991 and widely disseminated through its publication in 1993 and 2001. Locsin’s middle range theory of Technological Competency as Caring in Nursing emerged in 1991 through the initial publication of the theoretical paper in Image, Journal of Nursing Scholarship. In 2005, Sigma Theta Tau Press International Press published the book that catapulted the appreciation of the theory internationally. From these theoretical underpinnings, Tetsuya Tanioka developed his theory in 2017, entitled Transactive Relationship Theory of Nursing (TRETON) designating transactive relations with healthcare robots as specific theoretical application of technological competency as caring.


TRETON gave rise to Kyoko Osaka’s 2020 “Model for the Intermediary Role of Nurses in Transactive Relationships with Healthcare Robots” (MIRTH). Furthermore, Waraporn Kongsuwan's 2020 theory of “Aesthetic Nursing Practice (AesNURP)” was grounded in both Nursing As Caring theory, and Locsin’s Technological Competency as Caring in Nursing theory.


The development and dissemination of new theories nurtured further refinements and expansions of these connected theories. Acknowledgment of caring as the core value and focus of nursing as a discipline and professional practice is the foundation of the connectedness among these theories in a global environment that has no boundaries.


Furthermore, more theories, grand and middle range theories are evolving exponentially to foster the essentiality of nursing as a practice discipline and professional practice, connected within an interdisciplinary understanding of the health sciences.